Centella asiatica, usually known as Indian pennywort or Asiatic pennywort, is a herbaceous, enduring plant in the blossoming plant family Apiaceae.It is local to the wetlands in Asia. It is utilized as a culinary vegetable and as a restorative spice.
Name of Chinese medicine: Centella asiatica; alias: liverwort; husband root; Kuipengcai; collapsing bowl. It is a dry whole plant of Centella asiatica, a plant of the Umbelliferae family. Harvest in summer and autumn, remove the sediment and dry in the sun. It has the effects of clearing heat and dampness, detoxification and swelling. Used for damp-heat jaundice, heatstroke, diarrhea, sand and blood, carbuncle, swelling and sore toxins, fall and flutter injury.
L. (Gotu Kola) Urban (Syn. Gotu Kola coriacea Nannfd., Hydrocotyle asiatica L., Hydrocotyle lunata Lam., and Trisanthus cochinchinensis Lour.) is a tropical medicinal plant from Apiaceae family native to Southeast Asian countries such as India, Sri Lanka, China, Indonesia, and Malaysia as well as South Africa and Madagascar (). It is native to the warmer regions of both hemispheres. This plant grows wild in damp, shady places up to 7000 ft. and can be commonly seen along banks of rivers, streams, ponds, and irrigated fields. It also grows along stone walls or other rocky areas at elevation of approximately 2000 ft. in India and Sri Lanka (). The plant is also indigenous to China, the western South Sea Island, Australia, Madagascar, Southern United States, and insular and continental tropical America. This slender usually creeping herb is especially abundant in the tropical regions. The other common names of the plant are Asiatic Pennywort, Indian Pennywort, Thick-leaved Pennywort, and Gotu Kola. C. asiatica has been used as a medicinal herb for thousands of years in India, China, Sri Lanka, Nepal, and Madagascar.
Apart from wound healing, the herb is recommended for the treatment of various skin conditions such as leprosy, lupus, varicose ulcers, eczema, psoriasis, diarrhoea, fever, amenorrhea, diseases of the female genitourinary tract and also for relieving anxiety and improving cognition.
The centella asiatica extracts (CAE) have been used traditionally for wound healing and the research has been increasingly supportive for these claims. A preclinical study reported that various formulations (ointment, cream, and gel) of an aqueous centella asiatica extracts applied to open wounds in rats (3 times daily for 24 days) resulted in increased cellular proliferation and collagen synthesis at the wound site, as shown by an increase in collagen content and tensile strength. The authors found that the centella asiatica extracts -treated wounds epithelialized faster and the rate of wound contraction was higher when compared to the untreated control wounds. Healing was more prominent with the gel product. It is believed to have an effect on keratinization, which aids in thickening skin in areas of infection. Asiaticoside, a constituent in centella asiatica, has been reported to possess wound healing activity by increasing collagen formation and angiogenesis. Apart from showing a stimulation of the collagen synthesis in different cell types, the asiaticoside were shown to increase the tensile strength of the newly formed skin, furthering the healing of the wounds. Also, it was shown to inhibit the inflammatory process which may provoke hypertrophy in scars and improves the capillary permeability
One of essential impacts of centella asiatica was proposed to be on connective tissues by reinforcing the debilitated veins. It was hypothesized that centella asiatica may aid the support of connective tissue. In the treatment of scleroderma, it may likewise help with settling connective tissue development, diminishing its arrangement as it apparently invigorated the arrangement of hyaluronidase and chondroitin sulfate, just as applied an adjusting impact on the connective tissue. Centella asiatica was accounted for to follow up on the connective tissues of the vascular divider, being compelling in hypertensive microangiopathy and venous deficiency and diminishing slim filtration rate by improving microcirculatory parameters.
3.Sedative and anxiolytic properties:
Centella asiatica was depicted to have CNS impacts in Indian writing, for example, stimulatory-nervine tonic, rejuvenant, narcotic, sedative and insight advancing property. It has been generally utilized as a calming specialist in numerous Eastern societies; the impact was proposed mostly due to the brahmoside and brahminoside constituents, while the anxiolytic movement is viewed as, to some extent because of authoritative to cholecystokinin receptors (CCKB), a gathering of G protein coupled receptors which tie the peptide hormones cholesystokinin (CCK) or gastrin and were thought to assume a possible part in tweak of uneasiness, nociception, memory and craving in creatures and humans.
The stimulant impacts of complete triterpenes from CA on the idleness time in constrained swimming mice and centralization of amino corrosive in mice cerebrum tissue was noticed. In the examination, imipramine and all out triterpenes from CA diminished the idleness time and improved the lopsidedness of amino corrosive levels affirming the upper movement of CA. Similar creators researched the conceivable stimulant impact of all out triterpentes of CA by estimating the corticosterone levels in mice cerebrum
Asian centella asiatica increases the cerebral levels of GABA, which explains its traditional use as anxiolytic and anticonvulsant. The isolated steroids from the plant have been used to treat leprosy. In one study, the effects of aqueous centella asiatica extract (100 and 300 mg/kg) were evaluated on the course of kindling development, kindling-induced learning deficit and oxidative stress markers in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindled rats. Passive avoidance test and spontaneous locomotor activity, after 24 and 48 h after administration of PTZ, and oxidative stress parameters like malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione were carried out in the whole brain of animals.
Gotu kola is known to re-vitalize the brain and nervous system, increase attention span and concentration and combat aging. A study demonstrated cognitive-enhancing and anti-oxidant properties of CA in normal rats. The effect of an aqueous gotu kola extracts (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg for 21 days) was evaluated in intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) streptozotocin (STZ)-induced cognitive impairment and oxidative stress in rats. The rats treated with CA showed a dose-dependent increase in cognitive behaviour in passive avoidance and elevated plus-maze paradigms.
A laboratory study was reported in which aqueous extract of CA was found to be effective in inhibiting gastric lesions induced by ethanol administration. The authors concluded that the CA extract presumably strengthened the gastric mucosal barrier and reduced the damaging effects of free radicals. Animal studies showed that CA extracts inhibited gastric ulceration induced by cold and restraint stress, in rats.
The effects of centella extract upon pain (antinociception) and inflammation in rodent models were reported. The antinociceptive activity of the aqueous CAE (10, 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg) was studied using acetic acid-induced writhing and hot-plate method in mice, while the antiinflammatory activity of CA was studied by prostaglandin E2-induced paw edema in rats[. The aqueous CAE revealed significant antinociceptive activity with both the models similar to aspirin but less potent than morphine and significant antiinflammatory activity comparable to mefenamic acid.
Past examinations have recommended that centella asiatica extract could be helpful in forestalling radiation-prompted conduct changes during clinical radiotherapy. The plant removes were additionally tried for its radioprotective properties at a sublethal portion (8 Gy) of Co 60 gamma radiation. A 100 mg/kg portion expanded the endurance season of the mice fundamentally. Body weight reduction of the creatures in the medication treated gathering was essentially less in examination with the creatures that were given radiation only.
An examination revealed the intracellular exercises of a fluid Centella Asiatica Extract against herpes simplex infections, in vitro, containing both enemy of HSV-1 and antiHSV-2 activities. Both the unrefined concentrate and filtered portions demonstrated cytotoxicity against Ehrlich ascites and Dalton›s lymphoma ascites tumor cells, utilized in the examination in a fixation subordinate way. Notwithstanding, no cytotoxic impacts were recognized against typical cell lines. The oral organization of the concentrates (unrefined or cleansed) hindered the improvement of strong and ascites tumors in mice. Antimycotic movement of Centella Asiatica was additionally reported. The adequacy of Centella Asiatica in the treatment of discouragement, nervousness, and rest issues have been tried on little creatures and are accepted to be related with its brahmoside and brahminoside constituents or saponin glycosides.