A specific dosage for maximum efficacy is yet to be established; however, as a general principle, 400 to 800 mg per day can be used for at least six to 12 months, with no apparent adverse effects.
Artemisinin is invariably a valuable compound to combat cancer and its effectiveness is enhanced by the fact that is it effective orally and is cheap, as compared to other pharmacological interventions available on the market. It produces fewer side-effects, which makes it a favorable option for treatment in low-income settings where cancer has deep roots, mainly because of expensive treatments and the reluctance to opt for traditional regimens for cancer . Furthermore, a recent study conducted by Lin Qingsong et al. found that the addition of aminolevulinic acid (ALA) enhances the anticancer properties of artemisinin against colorectal cancer cell lines . Thus, if a purposeful plan is devised to develop artemisinin compounds as an adjunct to use in cancer treatments, it will contribute to decreasing financial costs for medical therapies. Given that more than 25 species of artemisinin are found in Pakistan , oncologists in Pakistan should take advantage of this drug and explore its benefits in the treatment of various cancers.
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone cancer in dogs. The estimated incidence is 10,000 dogs per year in the United States. Many large- to giant-breeds are at increased risk for osteosarcoma. Recently, retired racing Greyhound have been reported as the highest-risk breed. Artemisinin is a drug that has been used anecdotally in dogs with osteosaroma. Originally, it was used for treatment of malaria in South Asia, but it also kills cancer cells due to free radical generation in a reaction mediated by iron. Cancer cells have higher iron concentration than normal cells, so artemisinin is selectively toxic.
Artemisinin extract and its analogs are effective in several types of human cancer cells in test tubes. We have previously shown that low concentrations of artemisinin derivatives induce cell death in several types of canine cancer cells in the test tube. Artemisinin and its analogs have been used in clinical cancer treatment in people, and in dogs with osteosarcoma, with daily administration of small doses; however, there are few reports of successful outcome. A marked decrease of the gut absorption of artemisinin occurs within days if it is given daily. We hypothesize that high, pulse-dose artemisinin will be safe and effective in cancer treatment because it is unlikely to induce absorption resistance and it can achieve higher blood concentrations.
This strategy has resulted in encouraging clinical responses in a limited number of dogs with cancer in our clinic. This study will investigate if the absorption resistance can be avoided by pulse-dosing of artemisinin, and the safety of high-dose artemisinin treatment in dogs. The data of this study are essential in order to design additional clinical trials for cancer therapy using this promising group of compounds.
Artemisinin, a compound isolated from the sweet wormwood Artemisia annua L., has previously been shown to have selective toxicity towards cancer cells in vitro. In the present experiment, we studied the potential of artemisinin to prevent breast cancer development in rats treated with a single oral dose (50mg/kg) of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), known to induce multiple breast tumors. Starting from the day immediately after DMBA treatment, one group of rats was provided with a powdered rat-chow containing 0.02% artemisinin, whereas a control group was provided with plain powdered food. For 40 weeks, both groups of rats were monitored for breast tumors.
SARS-CoV-2 directly infects endothelium and causes immune cell recruitment that results in extensive endothelial dysfunction and apoptosis. These manifestations make the blood more viscous and result in thrombus formation . As per studies, the adult dose of AP for malaria consists of four tablets (artemisinin 250 mg and piperaquine 1500 mg), which has shown prolonged QT-intervals in some people .
The total recommended AP adult dose for the treatment of COVID-19 consists of eight tablets (artemisinin 500 mg and piperaquine 3000 mg). The current study found severe prolongation in two patients (11.76%) and significant differences between the two groups. Although AP treatment can cause QT interval prolongation in some patients, it did not cause TdP or other arrhythmias. Moreover, patients with prolonged QT intervals returned to normal after the drug was discontinued. However, considering the effect of SARS-CoV-2 on blood vessels and the side effects of AP, close monitoring of QT segment changes during AP treatment is still recommended.
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