The main component in Artemisia annua L., artemisinin, has the formula C15H22O15 and contains a peroxide bridge (C-O-O-C) (Fig. 1). Artemisinin has been widely used for the treatment of malaria for the past two decades . Additionally, artemisinin is known to have antibacterial, antifungal, antileishmanial, antioxidant, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory activity.
The anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties of artemisinin derived from water, methanol, ethanol, or acetone extracts of Artemisia annua L. were evaluated. All 4 artemisinin-containing extracts had anti-inflammatory effects. Of these, the acetone extract had the greatest inhibitory effect on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and proinflammatory cytokine (IL-1β , IL-6, and IL-10) production. Antioxidant activity evaluations revealed that the ethanol extract had the highest free radical scavenging activity, (91.0±3.2%), similar to α-tocopherol (99.9%). The extracts had antimicrobial activity against the periodontopathic microorganisms Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. animalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. polymorphum, and Prevotella intermedia. This study shows that Artemisia annua L. extracts contain anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial substances and should be considered for use in pharmaceutical products for the treatment of dental diseases.
The conventional dosage regimen for orally administered Artemisinin is 500-1000 mg (10-20 mg/kg) on the first day, followed by 500 mg daily for 4 days.Artemisinin suppositories have been given to patients with severe falciparum malaria, at doses of 600-1200 mg initially, followed by 400-600 mg 4 h later and 400-800 mg daily for 3 days.Generally, mefloquine 15-25 mg/kg is given 24-72 h after commencement of Artemisinin therapy.
Artemisinin can be taken orally, injected into your muscle, or inserted into the rectum as a suppository. This extract is associated with few side effects, but it shouldn’t be combined with other medication unless your doctor approves.
Some common side effects of artemisinin are:
You shouldn’t take artemisinin if you’re taking anti-seizure medications. It can induce seizures or make the medications less effective. People with gastrointestinal problems shouldn’t take artemisinin.
The artemisinins (ar tem' is in in), including artesumate, arteeter, artemether, artemisinin, and dihydroartemisinin, are derivatives of the Chinese herb known as "qing hao" or sweet wormwood plant (Artemisia annua). The artemisinins have antimalarial activity in vitro and in vivo and are believed to act by release of free radicals into the parasite vacuoles. Artemisinin derivatives are currently the most active antimalarial drugs available and have been introduced around the world as an integral part of therapy of active malaria, always in combination with other antimalarials to prevent resistance such as amodiaquine, lumefantrine and mefloquine. Several oral and parenteral formulations of artemisinin derivatives are available worldwide. In the United States, the combination of artemether (20 mg) and lumefantrine (120 mg) was approved for therapy of P. falciparum malaria in 2009 under the brand name Coartem. The recommended dose for adults is 4 tablets twice daily for 3 days (6 doses).
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