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What is anthocyanin
Jun 04, 2021

What is anthocyanin pigment?

Anthocyanin is one of the subclasses of phenolic phytochemicals. Anthocyanin is in the form of glycoside while anthocyanidin is known as the aglycone. Anthocyanidins are grouped into 3-hydroxyanthocyanidins, 3-deoxyanthocyanidins, and O-methylated anthocyanidins, while anthocyanins are in the forms of anthocyanidin glycosides and acylated anthocyanins. The most common types of anthocyanidins are cyanidin, delphinidin, pelargonidin, peonidin, petunidin, and malvidin. Acylated anthocyanins are also detected in plants besides the typical anthocyanins. Acylated anthocyanin is further divided into acrylated anthocyanin, coumaroylated anthocyanin, caffeoylated anthocyanin, and malonylated anthocyanin.


Anthocyanin Formula

Anthocyanin is derived from flavonol, and it has the basic structure of flavylium ion, that is a lack of a ketone oxygen at the 4-position (Figure 2). The empirical formula for flavylium ion of anthocyanin is C15H11O+ with a molecular weight of 207.24724 g/mol. On the other hand, anthocyanins are the glycosylated form of anthocyanidins. The conjugated bonds of anthocyanins result in red, blue, and purple-colored plants.


Related to anthocyanin foods

What is anthocyanin good for

What is anthocyanin good for

Anthocyanins have been reported as having the capacity to lower blood pressure, improve visual acuity, reduce cancer cell proliferation, inhibit tumor formation, prevent diabetes, lower the risk of CVD modulate cognitive and motor function. These are also reported to have anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial activity. Health promoting effects of anthocyanins are primarily attributable to their antioxidant properties but research suggests involvement of other mechanisms of action may also responsible.


Moreover, health promoting effect of anthocyanins may be the result of synergistic interactions between these and other flavonoid components. There is paucity of information on the absorption, bio-distribution and metabolism of anthocyanins and interacting flavonoid components. It is not clear if the in vitro health protective roles of anthocyanins will be displayed in vivo. Mechanism of action of anthocyanins also needs to be established.


All these remain as so called “Anthocyanin enigma” and need to be addressed in the light of systematic research following in vitro anthocyanin production systems which reliably and predictably synthesized anthocyanins in a controlled environment providing a unique and useful model for in-depth research on anthocyanins to establish its specific role in disease prevention.

What is anthocyanin in plants

What is anthocyanin in plants

Anthocyanins are a group of polyphenolic pigments that are ubiquitously found in the plant kingdom. In plants, anthocyanins play a role not only in reproduction, by attracting pollinators and seed dispersers, but also in protection against various abiotic and biotic stresses. There is accumulating evidence that anthocyanins have health-promoting properties, which makes anthocyanin metabolism an interesting target for breeders and researchers.

What is anthocyanin found in

Anthocyanins are a group of polyphenolic pigments that are ubiquitously found in the plant kingdom. In plants, anthocyanins play a role not only in reproduction, by attracting pollinators and seed dispersers, but also in protection against various abiotic and biotic stresses. There is accumulating evidence that anthocyanins have health-promoting properties, which makes anthocyanin metabolism an interesting target for breeders and researchers.

What is anthocyanins in food

What is anthocyanins in food

Many purple foods contain anthocyanins


All brightly coloured fruit and vegetables contain antioxidants – compounds which play a key role in protecting our bodies – but many naturally purple-coloured foods contain a certain antioxidant called anthocyanin. These are beneficial plant pigments which give fruit and veg their deep red, purple or blue hues.


While studies are ongoing, it’s too early to say conclusively whether purple foods containing anthocyanins deserve to be lauded as ‘superfoods’ as they have been in some media reports. Previous research has linked anthocyanins to a wide variety of health claims, however, including increased longevity, cardiovascular health, cancer prevention and dementia.


Anthocyanins are found in high concentrations in blackcurrants, blackberries and blueberries, as well as in aubergine (in the skin), red cabbage, cranberries and cherries.


What is anthocyanin used for

Anthocyanins found in plants have a wide range of usage. Blue, red, and purple colored pigments extracted from flowers, fruits, and vegetables are traditionally used as dye and food colorant. Besides being used as natural colorants, some of the anthocyanin-rich flowers and fruits have been traditionally used as medicine to treat various diseases. On the other hand, plant anthocyanins have been widely studied for their medicinal values. Anthocyanins possess antidiabetic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anti-obesity effects, as well as prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) [2]. Therefore, anthocyanins extracted from edible plants are potential pharmaceutical ingredients


What is anthocyanin in red cabbage

Red cabbage is rich in a number of bioactive substances, including anthocyanins. The anthocyanin profile of red cabbage consisting of twenty derivatives of cyanidin glucosides was described by means of HPLC-DAD-MS/MS. The base structure of anthocyanins identified was cyanidin-3-diglucoside-5-glucoside. Their glucoside residues were nonacylated, monoacylated and diacylated. Sinapic, ferulic, caffeic and p-coumaric acids were recognized as main phenolic acids in this structure. The predominant anthocyanin in red cabbage was nonacylated form of cyanidin-3-diglucoside-5-glucoside, followed by cyanidin-3-(sinapoyl)(sinapoyl)-diglucoside-5-glucoside and cyanidin-3-(p-coumaroyl)-diglucoside-5-glucoside.


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References:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5613902/

https://www.longdom.org/proceedings/health-benefits-of-anthocyanins-30841.html

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fchem.2018.00052/full

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0963996912005388

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