Oleander Extract Cancer Effects
Oleandrin and oleandrigenin are two active ingredients of Oleander have Antitumor activity effective against prostate cancer cell line. Anvirzel and oleandrin can cause human cancer cell death. Clinical studies had conducted on oleander extract reported that this herb acts as an anticancer agent. The bioactive compounds Oleandrin and oleandrigenin have anticancerous properties. Anvirzel is one of the poisonous substance present in this plant can induce apoptosis, which leads to cancer cell death.
The purpose of this study was to examine the mechanism(s) and differential cell-killing effects of Anvirzel, an extract of oleander (Nerium oleander; family-Apocynaceae), and its derivative compound Oleandrin on human, canine and murine tumor cells. Cells received different concentrations of Anvirzel (1.0 ng/ml to 500 microg/ml) or Oleandrin (0.01 ng/ml to 50 microg/ml) in both continuously treated and pulse-treated/recovery cultures. The cytotoxicity of these compounds was then determined.
Both Anvirzel and Oleandrin were able to induce cell killing in human cancer cells, but not in murine cancer cells; the cell-killing potency of Oleandrin was greater than that of Anvirzel. Canine oral cancer cells treated with Anvirzel showed intermediate levels of response, with some abnormal metaphases and cell death resulting from the treatment. From these results we conclude that Anvirzel and Oleandrin act in a species-specific manner, and while testing the effectiveness of a new compound for cancer treatment, one must use not only murine but a variety of cancer cells, including those of human origin.
Oleander extract cancer may slow tumor growth by inhibiting the membrane enzyme Na+, K+ -ATPase, especially in cells that have higher ratios of alpha 3 to alpha 1 isoform expression. It improves cellular export of fibroblast growth factor-2 . Oleandrin also induces apoptosis through NF-kB suppression . It selectively sensitized lung cancer cells to apoptosis-inducing ligand Apo2L/TRAIL via DR4/5 upregulation at both RNA and protein levels. Other proposed mechanisms include formation of superoxide radicals that cause tumor cell injury via mitochondrial disruption, IL-8 inhibition that mediates tumorigenesis, caspase-3 activation, induction of tumor cell autophagy , and P-gp inhibition . More recently, PBI-05204, an extract of N. oleander, inhibited pancreatic tumor proliferation partly via downregulation of PI3k/Akt and mTOR pathways.
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