What is gingerol?
Gingerols are phenolic compounds in ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae). Gingerols are the most abundant pungent compounds in fresh roots, and several gingerols of various chain lengths (n6 to n10) are present in ginger, with the most abundant being 6-gingerol. These compounds have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.
6-Gingerol, a pungent ingredient of ginger, has a wide array of pharmacologic effects. 6-Gingerol has been tested in the murine DDS-colitis model. Two separate laboratories demonstrated the efficacy of 6-gingerol against this colitis. One group attributed the anticolitis activity to activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity.
Gingerol, properly as -gingerol, is a phenol phytochemical compound found in fresh ginger that activates spice receptors on the tongue.Molecularly, gingerol is a relative of capsaicin and piperine, the compounds which are alkaloids, though the bioactive pathways are unconnected. It is normally found as a pungent yellow oil in the ginger rhizome, but can also form a low-melting crystalline solid. This chemical compound is found in all members of the Zingiberaceae family and is high in concentrations in the grains of paradise as well as an African Ginger species.
Cooking ginger transforms gingerol via a reverse aldol reaction into zingerone, which is less pungent and has a spicy-sweet aroma. When ginger is dried or mildly heated, gingerol undergoes a dehydration reaction forming shogaols, which are about twice as pungent as gingerol. This explains why dried ginger is more pungent than fresh ginger.
Ginger also contains -gingerol, -gingerol, and -gingerol,collectively deemed gingerols.
What is 6-gingerol?
-Gingerol targeted several genes that are involved in colorectal cancer. It has been shown that -gingerol is a potential inhibitor of leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) which is highly expressed in colorectal cancer. A study has also shown that -gingerol inhibited the growth of numerous types of tumors of renal, melanoma, and colon by enhancing the penetrations of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes CD4 and CD8 of T-cells and B220+ B-cells. Ginger-derived -gingerol regularly inhibits cell proliferation in various human colorectal cancer cell lines. It has been shown that the exposure to 150–200 μM of -gingerol of a colorectal cell line (HCT-116) reduce by 22% and 28% cell growth rate, respectively, after the 72 h incubation.
Ginger, owing to its functional ingredients like -gingerol, -shogaol, paradol, and zerumbone, exhibits anti-inﬂammatory and antitumorigenic activities. Ginger and its bioactive molecules are effective in controlling the extent of colorectal, gastric, ovarian, liver, and skin cancers.
What is gingerol used for?
Since antiquity, ginger or Zingiber officinale, has been used by humans for medicinal purposes and as spice condiments to enhance flavor in cooking. Organic ginger powder contains many phenolic compounds such as gingerol, shogaol and paradol that exhibit antioxidant, anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory properties. The role of ginger and its constituents in ameliorating diseases has been the focus of study in the past two decades by many researchers who provide strong scientific evidence of its health benefit.
What is the purpose of gingerol?
Since antiquity, ginger or Zingiber officinale, has been used by humans for medicinal purposes and as spice condiments to enhance flavor in cooking. Ginger contains many phenolic compounds such as gingerol, shogaol and paradol that exhibit antioxidant, anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory properties. The role of ginger and its constituents in ameliorating diseases has been the focus of study in the past two decades by many researchers who provide strong scientific evidence of its health benefit.
This review discusses research findings and works devoted to gingerols, the major pungent constituent of ginger, in modulating and targeting signaling pathways with subsequent changes that ameliorate, reverse or prevent chronic diseases in human studies and animal models. The physical, chemical and biological properties of gingerols are also described. The use of ginger and especially gingerols as medicinal food derivative appears to be safe in treating or preventing chronic diseases which will benefit the common population, clinicians, patients, researchers, students and industrialists.
What is the meaning of gingerol?
gingerol - derived from ginger; source of the hotness of ginger. ginger - perennial plants having thick branching aromatic rhizomes and leafy reedlike stems.
How much gingerol in ginger?
Ginger contains approximately 1.0 to 3.0% volatile oils and a number of pungent compounds.6 Gingerols are the most abundant pungent compounds in fresh roots, and several gingerols of various chain-lengths (n6 to n10) are present in ginger, with the most abundant being 6-gingerol. Shogaols, the dehydrated form of gingerols, are found in only small quantities in the fresh root and are mainly found in the dried and thermally treated roots, with 6-shogaol being the most abundant.
Gingerols and shogaols
Gingerols and the corresponding shogaols are the major pungent compounds present in the rhizomes of fresh and dried ginger (Zingiber officinale), respectively. The compounds have a favourable toxicity profile, but are cytotoxic towards a range of cancer cell lines. Tumours induced in several animal models were successfully treated by gingerols.
6-Gingerol is soluble in organic solvents such as ethanol, DMSO, and dimethyl formamide (DMF), which should be purged with an inert gas. The solubility of 6-gingerol in ethanol and DMF is approximately 30 mg/ml and 25 mg/ml in DMSO.
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