Phycocyanin Medicinal Uses
Phycocyanin can have a potent potential as a drug in a wide range of clinical applications. Phycocyanin shows a wide range of pharmacological effects, with anti-oxidation, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory activity, photo-induced cytotoxicity and stimulating the immune system.
Phycocyanin plays an antioxidant role in inhibiting hepatic lipid peroxidation and being helpful to liver protection. Phycocyanin also scavenges free radicals from damaged nerve cells, which could avoid DNA oxidative damage cause from free radicals and prevent neuronal cell apoptosis. There are more and more researches have shown that phycocyanin plays an effective anti-cancer role in various cancer cell types (such as breast cancer, liver cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer , Leukemia and bone marrow cancer and so on) in vitro and in vivo. Morcos first discovered the laser-induced cytotoxicity of phycocyanin, which could kill tumor cells, while the damage to normal tissue is minimal.
Thus, C-phycocyanin can act as a new class of TAM-targeted photosensitiser, which exhibits an efficient in vitro photodynamic activity, and selectively accumulates in tumour sites probably due to the affinity to TAM, which provides a novel strategy to enhance the efficacy for cancer therapy 70. Moreover, C-phycocyanin displays an anti-inflammatory potential, so C-phycocyanin is a potential natural anti-inflammatory agent. Phycocyanin can promote animal blood cell regeneration, improve lymphocyte activity and lymphatic system to improve immune function, and comprehensively enhance the disease resistance of the body. In addition, C-phycocyanin could inhibit TGF-β1-induced EMT and C-PC might be a potential anti-fibrosis drug.
What is Phycocyanin good for?
1.Phycocyanin has found numerous applications in the pharmaceutical and food and beverage industry. It is used primarily in the latter as a natural coloring agent.
2.Phycocyanin is used in the coloring of fermented milk products, ice creams, chewing gum, soft drinks, alcoholic drinks, desserts, cake decoration, milk shakes, etc.
3.Phycocyanin is used in the coloring of cosmetics.
4.Phycocyanin is used as a fluorescent marker in immunological studies.
5.Consumption of phycocyanin in the form of spirulina or supplement leads to optimal health. In the current situation where the environment is full of toxins from pollution from oil, gas, heavy metals and nuclear isotopes, consumption of spirulina/phycocyanin is highly beneficial.
6.Undersun’s Phycocyanin is available in spray dried powder form.
phycocyanin in plants
Phycocyanin is a pigment-protein complex from the light-harvesting phycobiliprotein family, along with allophycocyanin and phycoerythrin. It is an accessory pigment to chlorophyll. All phycobiliproteins are water-soluble, so they cannot exist within the membrane like carotenoids can. Instead, phycobiliproteins aggregate to form clusters that adhere to the membrane called phycobilisomes. Phycocyanin is a characteristic light blue color, absorbing orange and red light, particularly near 620 nm (depending on which specific type it is), and emits fluorescence at about 650 nm (also depending on which type it is).
Phycocyanin is an important commercially available blue food colorant. Herein we report an optimization study of various phycocyanin extraction methods from Spirulina platensis cyanobacterium biomass (dry, frozen and wet). Three different solvents i.e. distilled water, Na-Phosphate pH: 7.4 suspension and 1.5% CaCl2 (w/v) water solution were applied as the extraction medium. The highest total phycocyanin content (55.33 mg/g) was extracted from frozen biomass using 1.5% CaCl2 (w/v aq.) solution. Process variables of classical, ultrasound and microwave extraction methods (biomass/solvent ratio, extraction time, vibration, speed, and power) were optimized considering the CCRD experimental design to enrich phycocyanin. The optimum conditions of extraction methods; classical, ultrasound and microwave were determined as: 1.71% biomass/solvent ratio, 6237.66 homogenization rate and 15 min extraction time; 1% biomass/solvent ratio, 60% amplitude and 16.23 min extraction time; 2.34% biomass/solvent ratio, 133.29 W and 165.96 s extraction time. Classical extraction method provided vivid blue color, a higher amount of phycocyanin, and maximum antioxidant activity as compared to other extraction methods.
Phycocyanin is a characteristic light blue color, absorbing orange and red light, particularly near 620 nm (depending on which specific type it is), and emits fluorescence at about 650 nm (also depending on which type it is). Allophycocyanin absorbs and emits at longer wavelengths than phycocyanin C or phycocyanin R. Phycocyanins are found in cyanobacteria (also called blue-green algae). Phycobiliproteins have fluorescent properties that are used in immunoassay kits. Phycocyanin is from the Greek phyco meaning “algae” and cyanin is from the English word “cyan", which conventionally means a shade of blue-green (close to "aqua") and is derived from the Greek “kyanos" which means a somewhat different color: "dark blue".
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