Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide is composed of three monosaccharide chains, and its configuration is similar to DNA and RNA. It is a helical stereo configuration, and the helical layers are mainly fixed by hydrogen bonds. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides have significant differences in certain physicochemical properties such as monosaccharide composition, glycosidic bond configuration, molecular weight, optical rotation, and solubility. Among the more than 200 kinds of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides that have been extracted, most of them are heteropolysaccharides, that is, in addition to glucose, they also contain other monosaccharides such as galactose, mannose, arabinose, xylose, fucose, rhamnose and the like. Due to different sources, the molecular weight can vary from tens of thousands to hundreds of thousands, most of which are branched, and some polysaccharides also contain peptide chains.
Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides are sensitive to temperature and are heat sensitive substances. Most of them are insoluble in high concentration alcohol and soluble in hot water. When the temperature rises, it will cause the degradation of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides. The glycosidic bonds in the polysaccharides are easily broken to form a plurality of Tang monomers, while the Tang monomers are inactive. Now the extraction of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides is mostly carried out by membrane separation. The whole process is carried out in a closed system without heating, which avoids and reduces the influence of heat and oxygen on the nutrient composition of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides.
Ganoderma lucidum has a compact structure and good maintenance. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide is present in the cell wall and is difficult to seep out. Researchers use ultrasonic high-frequency oscillations to create a "cavitation effect" that can break the maintenance of Ganoderma lucidum structure. It changes the structure of Ganoderma lucidum, expands the diameter of the dialysis membrane, and releases the polysaccharide on the cell wall as soon as possible.
Studies have found that the activity of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides is related to its degree of polymerization and molecular weight, and it is more active in fragments with higher molecular weight; in addition, it is related to its physical and chemical properties such as solubility and viscosity. It has been shown that the activity of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides is related to certain specific groups. The activity of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide refers to its unique pharmaceutical properties and vitality, and is a concrete manifestation of the biotherapeutic effect.